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Divergence times are of major interest for studies of evolutionary biology and historical biogeography, but also to researchers who focus on understanding various types of trait evolution, such as the development of chemical and genetic pathways, climatic niche and geographic range sizes, and morphological, ecological and behavioural characters.
However, each of them also occurs, to some extent, as primordial isotopes that were made in supernovae, rather than radiogenically as daughter products.We also review the fossil record of the family to derive robust calibration points, and estimate a chronogram using an uncorrelated relaxed molecular clock. The Tomato clade is shown to be sister to section Petota, and the Regmandra clade is the first branching member of the Potato clade.The minimum age estimates for major splits within the family provided here correspond well with results from previous studies, indicating splits between tomato & potato around 8 Million years ago (Ma) with a 95% highest posterior density (HPD) 7–10 Ma, Our large time-calibrated phylogeny provides a significant step towards completing a fully sampled species-level phylogeny for Solanaceae, and provides age estimates for the whole family.The fixed ratio of lead-204 to the primordial amounts of the other lead isotopes may be used as the baseline to estimate the extra amounts of radiogenic lead present in rocks as a result of decay from uranium and thorium. The longest-lived radioisotopes are The relative abundances of the four stable isotopes are approximately 1.5%, 24%, 22%, and 52.5%, combining to give a standard atomic weight (abundance-weighted average of the stable isotopes) of 207.2(1).Lead is the element with the heaviest stable isotope, Th.