Radioactive carbon dating calculations
Both the physical properties of the ice itself and material trapped in the ice can be used to reconstruct information about climate over the age range of the core.
The ratio of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in the ice provides information about ancient temperatures; and the air trapped in tiny bubbles in the ice can be analyzed to determine the level of atmospheric gases such as carbon dioxide.
But it has been only recently that I’ve seen God’s purpose in the attacks.
He apparently uses the criticisms (and creationist answers) to help believers evaluate our research, just as an assayer uses acid (and a bright light) to show there is gold in a sample.
They are very disturbed about the project’s strong support of the young biblical age of the earth. In September, 2008, another such criticism appeared on a ‘progressive creation’ website, and I’ll discuss it below.
The criticisms show the attackers think the research is good enough to be a threat to them.
Impurities in ice cores may depend on location; for example, coastal areas are more likely to include material of marine origin, such as sea salt ions.Fission can occur when a nucleus of a heavy atom captures a neutron, or it can happen spontaneously.An ice core is a core sample that is typically removed from an ice sheet, most commonly from the polar ice caps of Antarctica, Greenland or from high mountain glaciers elsewhere.None of the critics listed below have published their denunciations in peer-reviewed scientific publications.Instead they are ‘lone-ranger’ opinions in un-reviewed venues such as Internet sites and seminars.